Filesystem Hierarchy Standard


Linux


Basiswissen


Die Struktur und Benennung des Dateisystems fr Linux-Rechner ist hier in der Version aus dem Jahr 2004 vorgestellt. Der englische Ausdruck dafr ist Filesystem Hierarchy Standard Group.

Quelle


◦ Rusty Russell
◦ Daniel Quinlan
◦ Christopher Yeoh
◦ Copyright 1994-2004 Daniel Quinlan
◦ Copyright 2001-2004 Paul 'Rusty' Russell
◦ Copyright 2003-2004 Christopher Yeoh

Inhalt


This standard consists of a set of requirements and guidelines for file and
directory placement under UNIX-like operating systems. The guidelines are
intended to support interoperability of applications, system administration
tools, development tools, and scripts as well as greater uniformity of
documentation for these systems.

All trademarks and copyrights are owned by their owners, unless specifically
noted otherwise. Use of a term in this document should not be regarded as
affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark.

Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this standard
provided the copyright and this permission notice are preserved on all copies.

Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this standard
under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided also that the title page is
labeled as modified including a reference to the original standard, provided
that information on retrieving the original standard is included, and provided
that the entire resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of a
permission notice identical to this one.

Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this standard into
another language, under the above conditions for modified versions, except that
this permission notice may be stated in a translation approved by the copyright
holder.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Table of Contents
1. Introduction

Purpose
Conventions

2. The Filesystem
3. The Root Filesystem

Purpose
Requirements
Specific Options
/bin : Essential user command binaries (for use by all users)

Purpose
Requirements
Specific Options

/boot : Static files of the boot loader


Purpose
Specific Options

/dev : Device files


Purpose
Specific Options

/etc : Host-specific system configuration

Purpose
Requirements
Specific Options
/etc/opt : Configuration files for /opt
/etc/X11 : Configuration for the X Window System (optional)
/etc/sgml : Configuration files for SGML (optional)
/etc/xml : Configuration files for XML (optional)

/home : User home directories (optional)


Purpose
Requirements

/lib : Essential shared libraries and kernel modules

Purpose
Requirements
Specific Options

/lib : Alternate format essential shared libraries (optional)

Purpose
Requirements

/media : Mount point for removeable media

Purpose
Specific Options

/mnt : Mount point for a temporarily mounted filesystem

Purpose


/opt : Add-on application software packages

Purpose
Requirements

/root : Home directory for the root user (optional)

Purpose


/sbin : System binaries


Purpose
Requirements
Specific Options

/srv : Data for services provided by this system

Purpose


/tmp : Temporary files


Purpose


4. The /usr Hierarchy


Purpose
Requirements
Specific Options
/usr/X11R6 : X Window System, Version 11 Release 6 (optional)

Purpose
Specific Options

/usr/bin : Most user commands


Purpose
Specific Options

/usr/include : Directory for standard include files.

Purpose
Specific Options

/usr/lib : Libraries for programming and packages

Purpose
Specific Options

/usr/lib : Alternate format libraries (optional)

Purpose
/usr/local : Local hierarchy

/usr/local/share
/usr/sbin : Non-essential standard system binaries

Purpose


/usr/share : Architecture-independent data

Purpose
Requirements
Specific Options
/usr/share/dict : Word lists (optional)
/usr/share/man : Manual pages
/usr/share/misc : Miscellaneous architecture-independent data
/usr/share/sgml : SGML data (optional)
/usr/share/xml : XML data (optional)

/usr/src : Source code (optional)


Purpose


5. The /var Hierarchy


Purpose
Requirements
Specific Options
/var/account : Process accounting logs (optional)

Purpose


/var/cache : Application cache data


Purpose
Specific Options
/var/cache/fonts : Locally-generated fonts (optional)
/var/cache/man : Locally-formatted manual pages (optional)

/var/crash : System crash dumps (optional)

Purpose


/var/games : Variable game data (optional)

Purpose


/var/lib : Variable state information


Purpose
Requirements
Specific Options
/var/lib/ : Editor backup files and state (optional)
/var/lib/hwclock : State directory for hwclock (optional)
/var/lib/misc : Miscellaneous variable data

/var/lock : Lock files


Purpose


/var/log : Log files and directories


Purpose
Specific Options

/var/mail : User mailbox files (optional)

Purpose


/var/opt : Variable data for /opt


Purpose


/var/run : Run-time variable data

Purpose
Requirements

/var/spool : Application spool data


Purpose
Specific Options
/var/spool/lpd : Line-printer daemon print queues (optional)
/var/spool/rwho : Rwhod files (optional)

/var/tmp : Temporary files preserved between system reboots

Purpose


/var/yp : Network Information Service (NIS) database files (optional)

Purpose


6. Operating System Specific Annex


Linux


/ : Root directory
/bin : Essential user command binaries (for use by all users)
/dev : Devices and special files
/etc : Host-specific system configuration
/lib64 and /lib32 : 64/32-bit libraries (architecture dependent)
/proc : Kernel and process information virtual filesystem
/sbin : Essential system binaries
/usr/include : Header files included by C programs
/usr/src : Source code
/var/spool/cron : cron and at jobs

7. Appendix


The FHS mailing list
Background of the FHS
General Guidelines
Scope
Acknowledgments
Contributors

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter 1. Introduction


Purpose


This standard enables:


* Software to predict the location of installed files and directories, and

* Users to predict the location of installed files and directories.

We do this by:


* Specifying guiding principles for each area of the filesystem,

* Specifying the minimum files and directories required,

* Enumerating exceptions to the principles, and

* Enumerating specific cases where there has been historical conflict.

The FHS document is used by:


* Independent software suppliers to create applications which are FHS
compliant, and work with distributions which are FHS complaint,

* OS creators to provide systems which are FHS compliant, and

* Users to understand and maintain the FHS compliance of a system.

The FHS document has a limited scope:


* Local placement of local files is a local issue, so FHS does not attempt to
usurp system administrators.

* FHS addresses issues where file placements need to be coordinated between
multiple parties such as local sites, distributions, applications,
documentation, etc.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Conventions


We recommend that you read a typeset version of this document rather than the
plain text version. In the typeset version, the names of files and directories
are displayed in a constant-width font.

Components of filenames that vary are represented by a description of the
contents enclosed in "<" and ">" characters, . Electronic mail addresses
are also enclosed in "<" and ">" but are shown in the usual typeface.

Optional components of filenames are enclosed in "[" and "]" characters and may
be combined with the "<" and ">" convention. For example, if a filename is
allowed to occur either with or without an extension, it might be represented
by [.].

Variable substrings of directory names and filenames are indicated by "*".

The sections of the text marked as Rationale are explanatory and are
non-normative.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter 2. The Filesystem


This standard assumes that the operating system underlying an FHS-compliant
file system supports the same basic security features found in most UNIX
filesystems.

It is possible to define two independent distinctions among files: shareable
vs. unshareable and variable vs. static. In general, files that differ in
either of these respects should be located in different directories. This makes
it easy to store files with different usage characteristics on different
filesystems.

"Shareable" files are those that can be stored on one host and used on others.
"Unshareable" files are those that are not shareable. For example, the files in
user home directories are shareable whereas device lock files are not.

"Static" files include binaries, libraries, documentation files and other files
that do not change without system administrator intervention. "Variable" files
are files that are not static.

Rationale: Shareable files can be stored on one host and used on several
others. Typically, however, not all files in the filesystem hierarchy are
shareable and so each system has local storage containing at least its
unshareable files. It is convenient if all the files a system requires that
are stored on a foreign host can be made available by mounting one or a few
directories from the foreign host.

Static and variable files should be segregated because static files, unlike
variable files, can be stored on read-only media and do not need to be
backed up on the same schedule as variable files.

Historical UNIX-like filesystem hierarchies contained both static and
variable files under both /usr and /etc. In order to realize the advantages
mentioned above, the /var hierarchy was created and all variable files were
transferred from /usr to /var. Consequently /usr can now be mounted
read-only (if it is a separate filesystem). Variable files have been
transferred from /etc to /var over a longer period as technology has
permitted.

Here is an example of a FHS-compliant system. (Other FHS-compliant layouts
are possible.)

+------------------------------------+
| | shareable |unshareable|
|--------+---------------+-----------|
|static |/usr |/etc |
|--------+---------------+-----------|
| |/opt |/boot |
|--------+---------------+-----------|
|variable|/var/mail |/var/run |
|--------+---------------+-----------|
| |/var/spool/news|/var/lock |
+------------------------------------+

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter 3. The Root Filesystem


Purpose


The contents of the root filesystem must be adequate to boot, restore, recover,
and/or repair the system.

* To boot a system, enough must be present on the root partition to mount
other filesystems. This includes utilities, configuration, boot loader
information, and other essential start-up data. /usr, /opt, and /var are
designed such that they may be located on other partitions or filesystems.

* To enable recovery and/or repair of a system, those utilities needed by an
experienced maintainer to diagnose and reconstruct a damaged system must be
present on the root filesystem.

* To restore a system, those utilities needed to restore from system backups
(on floppy, tape, etc.) must be present on the root filesystem.

Rationale: The primary concern used to balance these considerations, which
favor placing many things on the root filesystem, is the goal of keeping
root as small as reasonably possible. For several reasons, it is desirable
to keep the root filesystem small:

+ It is occasionally mounted from very small media.

+ The root filesystem contains many system-specific configuration files.
Possible examples include a kernel that is specific to the system, a
specific hostname, etc. This means that the root filesystem isn't
always shareable between networked systems. Keeping it small on servers
in networked systems minimizes the amount of lost space for areas of
unshareable files. It also allows workstations with smaller local hard
drives.

+ While you may have the root filesystem on a large partition, and may be
able to fill it to your heart's content, there will be people with
smaller partitions. If you have more files installed, you may find
incompatibilities with other systems using root filesystems on smaller
partitions. If you are a developer then you may be turning your
assumption into a problem for a large number of users.

+ Disk errors that corrupt data on the root filesystem are a greater
problem than errors on any other partition. A small root filesystem is
less prone to corruption as the result of a system crash.

Applications must never create or require special files or subdirectories in
the root directory. Other locations in the FHS hierarchy provide more than
enough flexibility for any package.

Rationale: There are several reasons why creating a new subdirectory of the
root filesystem is prohibited:

+ It demands space on a root partition which the system administrator may
want kept small and simple for either performance or security reasons.

+ It evades whatever discipline the system administrator may have set up
for distributing standard file hierarchies across mountable volumes.

Distributions should not create new directories in the root hierarchy
without extremely careful consideration of the consequences including for
application portability.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Requirements


The following directories, or symbolic links to directories, are required in /.

Directory Description
bin Essential command binaries
boot Static files of the boot loader
dev Device files
etc Host-specific system configuration
lib Essential shared libraries and kernel modules
media Mount point for removeable media
mnt Mount point for mounting a filesystem temporarily
opt Add-on application software packages
sbin Essential system binaries
srv Data for services provided by this system
tmp Temporary files
usr Secondary hierarchy
var Variable data

Each directory listed above is specified in detail in separate subsections
below. /usr and /var each have a complete section in this document due to the
complexity of those directories.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Specific Options


The following directories, or symbolic links to directories, must be in /, if
the corresponding subsystem is installed:

Directory Description
home User home directories (optional)
lib Alternate format essential shared libraries (optional)
root Home directory for the root user (optional)

Each directory listed above is specified in detail in separate subsections
below.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/bin : Essential user command binaries (for use by all users)

Purpose


/bin contains commands that may be used by both the system administrator and by
users, but which are required when no other filesystems are mounted (e.g. in
single user mode). It may also contain commands which are used indirectly by
scripts. [1]

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Requirements


There must be no subdirectories in /bin.


The following commands, or symbolic links to commands, are required in /bin.

Command Description
cat Utility to concatenate files to standard output
chgrp Utility to change file group ownership
chmod Utility to change file access permissions
chown Utility to change file owner and group
cp Utility to copy files and directories
date Utility to print or set the system data and time
dd Utility to convert and copy a file
df Utility to report filesystem disk space usage
dmesg Utility to print or control the kernel message buffer
echo Utility to display a line of text
false Utility to do nothing, unsuccessfully
hostname Utility to show or set the system's host name
kill Utility to send signals to processes
ln Utility to make links between files
login Utility to begin a session on the system
ls Utility to list directory contents
mkdir Utility to make directories
mknod Utility to make block or character special files
more Utility to page through text
mount Utility to mount a filesystem
mv Utility to move/rename files
ps Utility to report process status
pwd Utility to print name of current working directory
rm Utility to remove files or directories
rmdir Utility to remove empty directories
sed The `sed' stream editor
sh The Bourne command shell
stty Utility to change and print terminal line settings
su Utility to change user ID
sync Utility to flush filesystem buffers
true Utility to do nothing, successfully
umount Utility to unmount file systems
uname Utility to print system information

If /bin/sh is not a true Bourne shell, it must be a hard or symbolic link to
the real shell command.

The [ and test commands must be placed together in either /bin or /usr/bin.

Rationale: For example bash behaves differently when called as sh or bash.
The use of a symbolic link also allows users to easily see that /bin/sh is
not a true Bourne shell.

The requirement for the [ and test commands to be included as binaries
(even if implemented internally by the shell) is shared with the POSIX.2
standard.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Specific Options


The following programs, or symbolic links to programs, must be in /bin if the
corresponding subsystem is installed:

Command Description
csh The C shell (optional)
ed The `ed' editor (optional)
tar The tar archiving utility (optional)
cpio The cpio archiving utility (optional)
gzip The GNU compression utility (optional)
gunzip The GNU uncompression utility (optional)
zcat The GNU uncompression utility (optional)
netstat The network statistics utility (optional)
ping The ICMP network test utility (optional)

If the gunzip and zcat programs exist, they must be symbolic or hard links to
gzip. /bin/csh may be a symbolic link to /bin/tcsh or /usr/bin/tcsh.

Rationale: The tar, gzip and cpio commands have been added to make
restoration of a system possible (provided that / is intact).

Conversely, if no restoration from the root partition is ever expected,
then these binaries might be omitted (e.g., a ROM chip root, mounting /usr
through NFS). If restoration of a system is planned through the network,
then ftp or tftp (along with everything necessary to get an ftp connection)
must be available on the root partition.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/boot : Static files of the boot loader


Purpose


This directory contains everything required for the boot process except
configuration files not needed at boot time and the map installer. Thus /boot
stores data that is used before the kernel begins executing user-mode programs.
This may include saved master boot sectors and sector map files. [2]

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Specific Options


The operating system kernel must be located in either / or /boot. [3]

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/dev : Device files


Purpose


The /dev directory is the location of special or device files.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Specific Options


If it is possible that devices in /dev will need to be manually created, /dev
must contain a command named MAKEDEV, which can create devices as needed. It
may also contain a MAKEDEV.local for any local devices.

If required, MAKEDEV must have provisions for creating any device that may be
found on the system, not just those that a particular implementation installs.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/etc : Host-specific system configuration

Purpose


The /etc hierarchy contains configuration files. A "configuration file" is a
local file used to control the operation of a program; it must be static and
cannot be an executable binary. [4]

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Requirements


No binaries may be located under /etc. [5]

The following directories, or symbolic links to directories are required in /
etc:

Directory Description
opt Configuration for /opt
X11 Configuration for the X Window system (optional)
sgml Configuration for SGML (optional)
xml Configuration for XML (optional)

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Specific Options


The following directories, or symbolic links to directories must be in /etc, if
the corresponding subsystem is installed:

Directory Description
opt Configuration for /opt

The following files, or symbolic links to files, must be in /etc if the
corresponding subsystem is installed: [6]

File Description
csh.login Systemwide initialization file for C shell logins (optional)
exports NFS filesystem access control list (optional)
fstab Static information about filesystems (optional)
ftpusers FTP daemon user access control list (optional)
gateways File which lists gateways for routed (optional)
gettydefs Speed and terminal settings used by getty (optional)
group User group file (optional)
host.conf Resolver configuration file (optional)
hosts Static information about host names (optional)
hosts.allow Host access file for TCP wrappers (optional)
hosts.deny Host access file for TCP wrappers (optional)
hosts.equiv List of trusted hosts for rlogin, rsh, rcp (optional)
hosts.lpd List of trusted hosts for lpd (optional)
inetd.conf Configuration file for inetd (optional)
inittab Configuration file for init (optional)
issue Pre-login message and identification file (optional)
ld.so.conf List of extra directories to search for shared libraries (optional)
motd Post-login message of the day file (optional)
mtab Dynamic information about filesystems (optional)
mtools.conf Configuration file for mtools (optional)
networks Static information about network names (optional)
passwd The password file (optional)
printcap The lpd printer capability database (optional)
profile Systemwide initialization file for sh shell logins (optional)
protocols IP protocol listing (optional)
resolv.conf Resolver configuration file (optional)
rpc RPC protocol listing (optional)
securetty TTY access control for root login (optional)
services Port names for network services (optional)
shells Pathnames of valid login shells (optional)
syslog.conf Configuration file for syslogd (optional)

mtab does not fit the static nature of /etc: it is excepted for historical
reasons. [7]

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/etc/opt : Configuration files for /opt


Purpose


Host-specific configuration files for add-on application software packages must
be installed within the directory /etc/opt/, where is the name
of the subtree in /opt where the static data from that package is stored.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Requirements


No structure is imposed on the internal arrangement of /etc/opt/.

If a configuration file must reside in a different location in order for the
package or system to function properly, it may be placed in a location other
than /etc/opt/.

Rationale: Refer to the rationale for /opt.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/etc/X11 : Configuration for the X Window System (optional)

Purpose


/etc/X11 is the location for all X11 host-specific configuration. This
directory is necessary to allow local control if /usr is mounted read only.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Specific Options


The following files, or symbolic links to files, must be in /etc/X11 if the
corresponding subsystem is installed:

File Description
Xconfig The configuration file for early versions of XFree86 (optional)
XF86Config The configuration file for XFree86 versions 3 and 4 (optional)
Xmodmap Global X11 keyboard modification file (optional)

Subdirectories of /etc/X11 may include those for xdm and for any other programs
(some window managers, for example) that need them. [8] We recommend that
window managers with only one configuration file which is a default .*wmrc file
must name it system.*wmrc (unless there is a widely-accepted alternative name)
and not use a subdirectory. Any window manager subdirectories must be
identically named to the actual window manager binary.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/etc/sgml : Configuration files for SGML (optional)

Purpose


Generic configuration files defining high-level parameters of the SGML systems
are installed here. Files with names *.conf indicate generic configuration
files. File with names *.cat are the DTD-specific centralized catalogs,
containing references to all other catalogs needed to use the given DTD. The
super catalog file catalog references all the centralized catalogs.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/etc/xml : Configuration files for XML (optional)

Purpose


Generic configuration files defining high-level parameters of the XML systems
are installed here. Files with names *.conf indicate generic configuration
files. The super catalog file catalog references all the centralized catalogs.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/home : User home directories (optional)


Purpose


/home is a fairly standard concept, but it is clearly a site-specific
filesystem. [9] The setup will differ from host to host. Therefore, no program
should rely on this location. [10]

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Requirements


User specific configuration files for applications are stored in the user's
home directory in a file that starts with the '.' character (a "dot file"). If
an application needs to create more than one dot file then they should be
placed in a subdirectory with a name starting with a '.' character, (a "dot
directory"). In this case the configuration files should not start with the '.'
character. [11]

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/lib : Essential shared libraries and kernel modules

Purpose


The /lib directory contains those shared library images needed to boot the
system and run the commands in the root filesystem, ie. by binaries in /bin and
/sbin. [12]

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Requirements


At least one of each of the following filename patterns are required (they may
be files, or symbolic links):

File Description
libc.so.* The dynamically-linked C library (optional)
ld* The execution time linker/loader (optional)

If a C preprocessor is installed, /lib/cpp must be a reference to it, for
historical reasons. [13]

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Specific Options


The following directories, or symbolic links to directories, must be in /lib,
if the corresponding subsystem is installed:

Directory Description
modules Loadable kernel modules (optional)

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/lib : Alternate format essential shared libraries (optional)

Purpose


There may be one or more variants of the /lib directory on systems which
support more than one binary format requiring separate libraries. [14]

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Requirements


If one or more of these directories exist, the requirements for their contents
are the same as the normal /lib directory, except that /lib/cpp is not
required. [15]

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/media : Mount point for removeable media

Purpose


This directory contains subdirectories which are used as mount points for
removeable media such as floppy disks, cdroms and zip disks.

Rationale: Historically there have been a number of other different places
used to mount removeable media such as /cdrom, /mnt or /mnt/cdrom. Placing
the mount points for all removeable media directly in the root directory
would potentially result in a large number of extra directories in /.
Although the use of subdirectories in /mnt as a mount point has recently
been common, it conflicts with a much older tradition of using /mnt
directly as a temporary mount point.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Specific Options


The following directories, or symbolic links to directories, must be in /media,
if the corresponding subsystem is installed:

Directory Description
floppy Floppy drive (optional)
cdrom CD-ROM drive (optional)
cdrecorder CD writer (optional)
zip Zip drive (optional)

On systems where more than one device exists for mounting a certain type of
media, mount directories can be created by appending a digit to the name of
those available above starting with '0', but the unqualified name must also
exist. [16]

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/mnt : Mount point for a temporarily mounted filesystem

Purpose


This directory is provided so that the system administrator may temporarily
mount a filesystem as needed. The content of this directory is a local issue
and should not affect the manner in which any program is run.

This directory must not be used by installation programs: a suitable temporary
directory not in use by the system must be used instead.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/opt : Add-on application software packages

Purpose


/opt is reserved for the installation of add-on application software packages.

A package to be installed in /opt must locate its static files in a separate /
opt/ or /opt/ directory tree, where is a name that
describes the software package and is the provider's LANANA
registered name.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Requirements


Directory Description
Static package objects
LANANA registered provider name

The directories /opt/bin, /opt/doc, /opt/include, /opt/info, /opt/lib, and /opt
/man are reserved for local system administrator use. Packages may provide
"front-end" files intended to be placed in (by linking or copying) these
reserved directories by the local system administrator, but must function
normally in the absence of these reserved directories.

Programs to be invoked by users must be located in the directory /opt/
/bin or under the /opt/ hierarchy. If the package includes UNIX
manual pages, they must be located in /opt//share/man or under the /
opt/ hierarchy, and the same substructure as /usr/share/man must be
used.

Package files that are variable (change in normal operation) must be installed
in /var/opt. See the section on /var/opt for more information.

Host-specific configuration files must be installed in /etc/opt. See the
section on /etc for more information.

No other package files may exist outside the /opt, /var/opt, and /etc/opt
hierarchies except for those package files that must reside in specific
locations within the filesystem tree in order to function properly. For
example, device lock files must be placed in /var/lock and devices must be
located in /dev.

Distributions may install software in /opt, but must not modify or delete
software installed by the local system administrator without the assent of the
local system administrator.

Rationale: The use of /opt for add-on software is a well-established
practice in the UNIX community. The System V Application Binary Interface
[AT&T 1990], based on the System V Interface Definition (Third Edition),
provides for an /opt structure very similar to the one defined here.

The Intel Binary Compatibility Standard v. 2 (iBCS2) also provides a
similar structure for /opt.

Generally, all data required to support a package on a system must be
present within /opt/, including files intended to be copied into /
etc/opt/ and /var/opt/ as well as reserved directories in
/opt.

The minor restrictions on distributions using /opt are necessary because
conflicts are possible between distribution-installed and locally-installed
software, especially in the case of fixed pathnames found in some binary
software.

The structure of the directories below /opt/ is left up to the
packager of the software, though it is recommended that packages are
installed in /opt// and follow a similar structure to
the guidelines for /opt/package. A valid reason for diverging from this
structure is for support packages which may have files installed in /opt/
/lib or /opt//bin.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/root : Home directory for the root user (optional)

Purpose


The root account's home directory may be determined by developer or local
preference, but this is the recommended default location. [17]

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/sbin : System binaries


Purpose


Utilities used for system administration (and other root-only commands) are
stored in /sbin, /usr/sbin, and /usr/local/sbin. /sbin contains binaries
essential for booting, restoring, recovering, and/or repairing the system in
addition to the binaries in /bin. [18] Programs executed after /usr is known to
be mounted (when there are no problems) are generally placed into /usr/sbin.
Locally-installed system administration programs should be placed into /usr/
local/sbin. [19]

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Requirements


The following commands, or symbolic links to commands, are required in /sbin.

Command Description
shutdown Command to bring the system down.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Specific Options


The following files, or symbolic links to files, must be in /sbin if the
corresponding subsystem is installed:

Command Description
fastboot Reboot the system without checking the disks (optional)
fasthalt Stop the system without checking the disks (optional)
fdisk Partition table manipulator (optional)
fsck File system check and repair utility (optional)
fsck.* File system check and repair utility for a specific filesystem
(optional)
getty The getty program (optional)
halt Command to stop the system (optional)
ifconfig Configure a network interface (optional)
init Initial process (optional)
mkfs Command to build a filesystem (optional)
mkfs.* Command to build a specific filesystem (optional)
mkswap Command to set up a swap area (optional)
reboot Command to reboot the system (optional)
route IP routing table utility (optional)
swapon Enable paging and swapping (optional)
swapoff Disable paging and swapping (optional)
update Daemon to periodically flush filesystem buffers (optional)

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/srv : Data for services provided by this system

Purpose


/srv contains site-specific data which is served by this system.


Rationale: This main purpose of specifying this is so that users may find
the location of the data files for particular service, and so that services
which require a single tree for readonly data, writable data and scripts
(such as cgi scripts) can be reasonably placed. Data that is only of
interest to a specific user should go in that users' home directory.

The methodology used to name subdirectories of /srv is unspecified as there
is currently no consensus on how this should be done. One method for
structuring data under /srv is by protocol, eg. ftp, rsync, www, and cvs.
On large systems it can be useful to structure /srv by administrative
context, such as /srv/physics/www, /srv/compsci/cvs, etc. This setup will
differ from host to host. Therefore, no program should rely on a specific
subdirectory structure of /srv existing or data necessarily being stored in
/srv. However /srv should always exist on FHS compliant systems and should
be used as the default location for such data.

Distributions must take care not to remove locally placed files in these
directories without administrator permission. [20]



-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/tmp : Temporary files


Purpose


The /tmp directory must be made available for programs that require temporary
files.

Programs must not assume that any files or directories in /tmp are preserved
between invocations of the program.

Rationale: IEEE standard P1003.2 (POSIX, part 2) makes requirements that
are similar to the above section.

Although data stored in /tmp may be deleted in a site-specific manner, it
is recommended that files and directories located in /tmp be deleted
whenever the system is booted.

FHS added this recommendation on the basis of historical precedent and
common practice, but did not make it a requirement because system
administration is not within the scope of this standard.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter 4. The /usr Hierarchy


Purpose


/usr is the second major section of the filesystem. /usr is shareable,
read-only data. That means that /usr should be shareable between various
FHS-compliant hosts and must not be written to. Any information that is
host-specific or varies with time is stored elsewhere.

Large software packages must not use a direct subdirectory under the /usr
hierarchy.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Requirements


The following directories, or symbolic links to directories, are required in /
usr.

Directory Description
bin Most user commands
include Header files included by C programs
lib Libraries
local Local hierarchy (empty after main installation)
sbin Non-vital system binaries
share Architecture-independent data

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Specific Options


Directory Description
X11R6 XWindow System, version 11 release 6 (optional)
games Games and educational binaries (optional)
lib Alternate Format Libraries (optional)
src Source code (optional)

An exception is made for the X Window System because of considerable precedent
and widely-accepted practice.

The following symbolic links to directories may be present. This possibility is
based on the need to preserve compatibility with older systems until all
implementations can be assumed to use the /var hierarchy.

/usr/spool -> /var/spool
/usr/tmp -> /var/tmp
/usr/spool/locks -> /var/lock

Once a system no longer requires any one of the above symbolic links, the link
may be removed, if desired.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/usr/X11R6 : X Window System, Version 11 Release 6 (optional)

Purpose


This hierarchy is reserved for the X Window System, version 11 release 6, and
related files.

To simplify matters and make XFree86 more compatible with the X Window System
on other systems, the following symbolic links must be present if /usr/X11R6
exists:

/usr/bin/X11 -> /usr/X11R6/bin
/usr/lib/X11 -> /usr/X11R6/lib/X11
/usr/include/X11 -> /usr/X11R6/include/X11

In general, software must not be installed or managed via the above symbolic
links. They are intended for utilization by users only. The difficulty is
related to the release version of the X Window System - in transitional
periods, it is impossible to know what release of X11 is in use.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Specific Options


Host-specific data in /usr/X11R6/lib/X11 should be interpreted as a
demonstration file. Applications requiring information about the current host
must reference a configuration file in /etc/X11, which may be linked to a file
in /usr/X11R6/lib. [21]

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/usr/bin : Most user commands


Purpose


This is the primary directory of executable commands on the system.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Specific Options


The following directories, or symbolic links to directories, must be in /usr/
bin, if the corresponding subsystem is installed:

Directory Description
mh Commands for the MH mail handling system (optional)

/usr/bin/X11 must be a symlink to /usr/X11R6/bin if the latter exists.

The following files, or symbolic links to files, must be in /usr/bin, if the
corresponding subsystem is installed:

Command Description
perl The Practical Extraction and Report Language (optional)
python The Python interpreted language (optional)
tclsh Simple shell containing Tcl interpreter (optional)
wish Simple Tcl/Tk windowing shell (optional)
expect Program for interactive dialog (optional)

Rationale: Because shell script interpreters (invoked with #! on the
first line of a shell script) cannot rely on a path, it is advantageous to
standardize their locations. The Bourne shell and C-shell interpreters are
already fixed in /bin, but Perl, Python, and Tcl are often found in many
different places. They may be symlinks to the physical location of the
shell interpreters.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/usr/include : Directory for standard include files.

Purpose


This is where all of the system's general-use include files for the C
programming language should be placed.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Specific Options


The following directories, or symbolic links to directories, must be in /usr/
include, if the corresponding subsystem is installed:

Directory Description
bsd BSD compatibility include files (optional)

The symbolic link /usr/include/X11 must link to /usr/X11R6/include/X11 if the
latter exists.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/usr/lib : Libraries for programming and packages

Purpose


/usr/lib includes object files, libraries, and internal binaries that are not
intended to be executed directly by users or shell scripts. [22]

Applications may use a single subdirectory under /usr/lib. If an application
uses a subdirectory, all architecture-dependent data exclusively used by the
application must be placed within that subdirectory. [23]

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Specific Options


For historical reasons, /usr/lib/sendmail must be a symbolic link to /usr/sbin/
sendmail if the latter exists. [24]

If /lib/X11 exists, /usr/lib/X11 must be a symbolic link to /lib/X11, or to
whatever /lib/X11 is a symbolic link to. [25]

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/usr/lib : Alternate format libraries (optional)

Purpose


/usr/lib performs the same role as /usr/lib for an alternate binary
format, except that the symbolic links /usr/lib/sendmail and /usr/lib
/X11 are not required. [26]

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/usr/local : Local hierarchy


Purpose


The /usr/local hierarchy is for use by the system administrator when installing
software locally. It needs to be safe from being overwritten when the system
software is updated. It may be used for programs and data that are shareable
amongst a group of hosts, but not found in /usr.

Locally installed software must be placed within /usr/local rather than /usr
unless it is being installed to replace or upgrade software in /usr. [27]

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Requirements


The following directories, or symbolic links to directories, must be in /usr/
local

Directory Description
bin Local binaries
etc Host-specific system configuration for local binaries
games Local game binaries
include Local C header files
lib Local libraries
man Local online manuals
sbin Local system binaries
share Local architecture-independent hierarchy
src Local source code

No other directories, except those listed below, may be in /usr/local after
first installing a FHS-compliant system.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Specific Options


If directories /lib or /usr/lib exist, the equivalent directories
must also exist in /usr/local.

/usr/local/etc may be a symbolic link to /etc/local.

Rationale: The consistency of /usr/local/etc is beneficial to installers,
and is already used in other systems. As all of /usr/local needs to be
backed up to reproduce a system, it introduces no additional maintenance
overhead, but a symlink to /etc/local is suitable if systems want alltheir
configuration under one hierarchy.

Note that /usr/etc is still not allowed: programs in /usr should place
configuration files in /etc.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/usr/local/share


The requirements for the contents of this directory are the same as /usr/share.
The only additional constraint is that /usr/local/share/man and /usr/local/man
directories must be synonomous (usually this means that one of them must be a
symbolic link). [28]

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/usr/sbin : Non-essential standard system binaries

Purpose


This directory contains any non-essential binaries used exclusively by the
system administrator. System administration programs that are required for
system repair, system recovery, mounting /usr, or other essential functions
must be placed in /sbin instead. [29]

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/usr/share : Architecture-independent data

Purpose


The /usr/share hierarchy is for all read-only architecture independent data
files. [30]

This hierarchy is intended to be shareable among all architecture platforms of
a given OS; thus, for example, a site with i386, Alpha, and PPC platforms might
maintain a single /usr/share directory that is centrally-mounted. Note,
however, that /usr/share is generally not intended to be shared by different
OSes or by different releases of the same OS.

Any program or package which contains or requires data that doesn't need to be
modified should store that data in /usr/share (or /usr/local/share, if
installed locally). It is recommended that a subdirectory be used in /usr/share
for this purpose.

Game data stored in /usr/share/games must be purely static data. Any modifiable
files, such as score files, game play logs, and so forth, should be placed in /
var/games.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Requirements


The following directories, or symbolic links to directories, must be in /usr/
share

Directory Description
man Online manuals
misc Miscellaneous architecture-independent data

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Specific Options


The following directories, or symbolic links to directories, must be in /usr/
share, if the corresponding subsystem is installed:

Directory Description
dict Word lists (optional)
doc Miscellaneous documentation (optional)
games Static data files for /usr/games (optional)
info GNU Info system s primary directory (optional)
locale Locale information (optional)
nls Message catalogs for Native language support (optional)
sgml SGML data (optional)
terminfo Directories for terminfo database (optional)
tmac troff macros not distributed with groff (optional)
xml XML data (optional)
zoneinfo Timezone information and configuration (optional)

It is recommended that application-specific, architecture-independent
directories be placed here. Such directories include groff, perl, ghostscript,
texmf, and kbd (Linux) or syscons (BSD). They may, however, be placed in /usr/
lib for backwards compatibility, at the distributor's discretion. Similarly, a
/usr/lib/games hierarchy may be used in addition to the /usr/share/games
hierarchy if the distributor wishes to place some game data there.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/usr/share/dict : Word lists (optional)


Purpose


This directory is the home for word lists on the system; Traditionally this
directory contains only the English words file, which is used by look(1) and
various spelling programs. words may use either American or British spelling.

Rationale: The reason that only word lists are located here is that they
are the only files common to all spell checkers.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Specific Options


The following files, or symbolic links to files, must be in /usr/share/dict, if
the corresponding subsystem is installed:

File Description
words List of English words (optional)

Sites that require both American and British spelling may link words to /usr/
share/dict/american-english or /usr/share/dict/british-english.

Word lists for other languages may be added using the English name for that
language, e.g., /usr/share/dict/french, /usr/share/dict/danish, etc. These
should, if possible, use an ISO 8859 character set which is appropriate for the
language in question; if possible the Latin1 (ISO 8859-1) character set should
be used (this is often not possible).

Other word lists must be included here, if present.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/usr/share/man : Manual pages


Purpose


This section details the organization for manual pages throughout the system,
including /usr/share/man. Also refer to the section on /var/cache/man.

The primary of the system is /usr/share/man. /usr/share/man contains
manual information for commands and data under the / and /usr filesystems. [31]

Manual pages are stored in //man
/. An
explanation of , ,
, and is given below.

A description of each section follows:


* man1: User programs Manual pages that describe publicly accessible commands
are contained in this chapter. Most program documentation that a user will
need to use is located here.

* man2: System calls This section describes all of the system calls (requests
for the kernel to perform operations).

* man3: Library functions and subroutines Section 3 describes program library
routines that are not direct calls to kernel services. This and chapter 2
are only really of interest to programmers.

* man4: Special files Section 4 describes the special files, related driver
functions, and networking support available in the system. Typically, this
includes the device files found in /dev and the kernel interface to
networking protocol support.

* man5: File formats The formats for many data files are documented in the
section 5. This includes various include files, program output files, and
system files.

* man6: Games This chapter documents games, demos, and generally trivial
programs. Different people have various notions about how essential this
is.

* man7: Miscellaneous Manual pages that are difficult to classify are
designated as being section 7. The troff and other text processing macro
packages are found here.

* man8: System administration Programs used by system administrators for
system operation and maintenance are documented here. Some of these
programs are also occasionally useful for normal users.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Specific Options


The following directories, or symbolic links to directories, must be in /usr/
share//, unless they are empty: [32]

Directory Description
man1 User programs (optional)
man2 System calls (optional)
man3 Library calls (optional)
man4 Special files (optional)
man5 File formats (optional)
man6 Games (optional)
man7 Miscellaneous (optional)
man8 System administration (optional)

The component
describes the manual section.

Provisions must be made in the structure of /usr/share/man to support manual
pages which are written in different (or multiple) languages. These provisions
must take into account the storage and reference of these manual pages.
Relevant factors include language (including geographical-based differences),
and character code set.

This naming of language subdirectories of /usr/share/man is based on Appendix E
of the POSIX 1003.1 standard which describes the locale identification string -
the most well-accepted method to describe a cultural environment. The
string is:

[_][.][,]

The field must be taken from ISO 639 (a code for the representation
of names of languages). It must be two characters wide and specified with
lowercase letters only.

The field must be the two-letter code of ISO 3166 (a specification
of representations of countries), if possible. (Most people are familiar with
the two-letter codes used for the country codes in email addresses.) It must be
two characters wide and specified with uppercase letters only. [33]

The field must represent the standard describing the character
set. If the field is just a numeric specification, the number
represents the number of the international standard describing the character
set. It is recommended that this be a numeric representation if possible (ISO
standards, especially), not include additional punctuation symbols, and that
any letters be in lowercase.

A parameter specifying a of the profile may be placed after the
field, delimited by a comma. This may be used to discriminate
between different cultural needs; for instance, dictionary order versus a more
systems-oriented collating order. This standard recommends not using the
field, unless it is necessary.

Systems which use a unique language and code set for all manual pages may omit
the substring and store all manual pages in . For example,
systems which only have English manual pages coded with ASCII, may store manual
pages (the man
directories) directly in /usr/share/man. (That is the
traditional circumstance and arrangement, in fact.)

Countries for which there is a well-accepted standard character code set may
omit the field, but it is strongly recommended that it be
included, especially for countries with several competing standards.

Various examples:


Language Territory Character Set Directory
English - ASCII /usr/share/man/en
English United Kingdom ISO 8859-15 /usr/share/man/en_GB
English United States ASCII /usr/share/man/en_US
French Canada ISO 8859-1 /usr/share/man/fr_CA
French France ISO 8859-1 /usr/share/man/fr_FR
German Germany ISO 646 /usr/share/man/de_DE.646
German Germany ISO 6937 /usr/share/man/de_DE.6937
German Germany ISO 8859-1 /usr/share/man/de_DE.88591
German Switzerland ISO 646 /usr/share/man/de_CH.646
Japanese Japan JIS /usr/share/man/ja_JP.jis
Japanese Japan SJIS /usr/share/man/ja_JP.sjis
Japanese Japan UJIS (or EUC-J) /usr/share/man/ja_JP.ujis

Similarly, provision must be made for manual pages which are
architecture-dependent, such as documentation on device-drivers or low-level
system administration commands. These must be placed under an directory
in the appropriate man
directory; for example, a man page for the i386
ctrlaltdel(8) command might be placed in /usr/share/man//man8/i386/
ctrlaltdel.8.

Manual pages for commands and data under /usr/local are stored in /usr/local/
man. Manual pages for X11R6 are stored in /usr/X11R6/man. It follows that all
manual page hierarchies in the system must have the same structure as /usr/
share/man.

The cat page sections (cat
) containing formatted manual page entries
are also found within subdirectories of /, but are not required
nor may they be distributed in lieu of nroff source manual pages.

The numbered sections "1" through "8" are traditionally defined. In general,
the file name for manual pages located within a particular section end with .
.

In addition, some large sets of application-specific manual pages have an
additional suffix appended to the manual page filename. For example, the MH
mail handling system manual pages must have mh appended to all MH manuals. All
X Window System manual pages must have an x appended to the filename.

The practice of placing various language manual pages in appropriate
subdirectories of /usr/share/man also applies to the other manual page
hierarchies, such as /usr/local/man and /usr/X11R6/man. (This portion of the
standard also applies later in the section on the optional /var/cache/man
structure.)

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/usr/share/misc : Miscellaneous architecture-independent data

This directory contains miscellaneous architecture-independent files which
don't require a separate subdirectory under /usr/share.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Specific Options


The following files, or symbolic links to files, must be in /usr/share/misc, if
the corresponding subsystem is installed:

File Description
ascii ASCII character set table (optional)
magic Default list of magic numbers for the file command (optional)
termcap Terminal capability database (optional)
termcap.db Terminal capability database (optional)

Other (application-specific) files may appear here, but a distributor may place
them in /usr/lib at their discretion. [34]

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/usr/share/sgml : SGML data (optional)


Purpose


/usr/share/sgml contains architecture-independent files used by SGML
applications, such as ordinary catalogs (not the centralized ones, see /etc/
sgml), DTDs, entities, or style sheets.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Specific Options


The following directories, or symbolic links to directories, must be in /usr/
share/sgml, if the corresponding subsystem is installed:

Directory Description
docbook docbook DTD (optional)
tei tei DTD (optional)
html html DTD (optional)
mathml mathml DTD (optional)

Other files that are not specific to a given DTD may reside in their own
subdirectory.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/usr/share/xml : XML data (optional)


Purpose


/usr/share/xml contains architecture-independent files used by XML
applications, such as ordinary catalogs (not the centralized ones, see /etc/
sgml), DTDs, entities, or style sheets.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Specific Options


The following directories, or symbolic links to directories, must be in /usr/
share/xml, if the corresponding subsystem is installed:

Directory Description
docbook docbook XML DTD (optional)
xhtml XHTML DTD (optional)
mathml MathML DTD (optional)

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/usr/src : Source code (optional)


Purpose


Source code may be place placed in this subdirectory, only for reference
purposes. [35]

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter 5. The /var Hierarchy


Purpose


/var contains variable data files. This includes spool directories and files,
administrative and logging data, and transient and temporary files.

Some portions of /var are not shareable between different systems. For
instance, /var/log, /var/lock, and /var/run. Other portions may be shared,
notably /var/mail, /var/cache/man, /var/cache/fonts, and /var/spool/news.

/var is specified here in order to make it possible to mount /usr read-only.
Everything that once went into /usr that is written to during system operation
(as opposed to installation and software maintenance) must be in /var.

If /var cannot be made a separate partition, it is often preferable to move /
var out of the root partition and into the /usr partition. (This is sometimes
done to reduce the size of the root partition or when space runs low in the
root partition.) However, /var must not be linked to /usr because this makes
separation of /usr and /var more difficult and is likely to create a naming
conflict. Instead, link /var to /usr/var.

Applications must generally not add directories to the top level of /var. Such
directories should only be added if they have some system-wide implication, and
in consultation with the FHS mailing list.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Requirements


The following directories, or symbolic links to directories, are required in /
var.

Directory Description
cache Application cache data
lib Variable state information
local Variable data for /usr/local
lock Lock files
log Log files and directories
opt Variable data for /opt
run Data relevant to running processes
spool Application spool data
tmp Temporary files preserved between system reboots

Several directories are `reserved' in the sense that they must not be used
arbitrarily by some new application, since they would conflict with historical
and/or local practice. They are:

/var/backups
/var/cron
/var/msgs
/var/preserve

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Specific Options


The following directories, or symbolic links to directories, must be in /var,
if the corresponding subsystem is installed:

Directory Description
account Process accounting logs (optional)
crash System crash dumps (optional)
games Variable game data (optional)
mail User mailbox files (optional)
yp Network Information Service (NIS) database files (optional)

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/var/account : Process accounting logs (optional)

Purpose


This directory holds the current active process accounting log and the
composite process usage data (as used in some UNIX-like systems by lastcomm and
sa).

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/var/cache : Application cache data


Purpose


/var/cache is intended for cached data from applications. Such data is locally
generated as a result of time-consuming I/O or calculation. The application
must be able to regenerate or restore the data. Unlike /var/spool, the cached
files can be deleted without data loss. The data must remain valid between
invocations of the application and rebooting the system.

Files located under /var/cache may be expired in an application specific
manner, by the system administrator, or both. The application must always be
able to recover from manual deletion of these files (generally because of a
disk space shortage). No other requirements are made on the data format of the
cache directories.

Rationale: The existence of a separate directory for cached data allows
system administrators to set different disk and backup policies from other
directories in /var.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Specific Options


Directory Description
fonts Locally-generated fonts (optional)
man Locally-formatted manual pages (optional)
www WWW proxy or cache data (optional)
Package specific cache data (optional)

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/var/cache/fonts : Locally-generated fonts (optional)

Purpose


The directory /var/cache/fonts should be used to store any dynamically-created
fonts. In particular, all of the fonts which are automatically generated by
mktexpk must be located in appropriately-named subdirectories of /var/cache/
fonts. [36]

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Specific Options


Other dynamically created fonts may also be placed in this tree, under
appropriately-named subdirectories of /var/cache/fonts.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/var/cache/man : Locally-formatted manual pages (optional)

Purpose


This directory provides a standard location for sites that provide a read-only
/usr partition, but wish to allow caching of locally-formatted man pages. Sites
that mount /usr as writable (e.g., single-user installations) may choose not to
use /var/cache/man and may write formatted man pages into the cat

directories in /usr/share/man directly. We recommend that most sites use one of
the following options instead:

* Preformat all manual pages alongside the unformatted versions.

* Allow no caching of formatted man pages, and require formatting to be done
each time a man page is brought up.

* Allow local caching of formatted man pages in /var/cache/man.

The structure of /var/cache/man needs to reflect both the fact of multiple man
page hierarchies and the possibility of multiple language support.

Given an unformatted manual page that normally appears in /man//
man
, the directory to place formatted man pages in is /var/cache/man/
//cat
, where is derived from by
removing any leading usr and/or trailing share pathname components. (Note that
the component may be missing.) [37]

Man pages written to /var/cache/man may eventually be transferred to the
appropriate preformatted directories in the source man hierarchy or expired;
likewise formatted man pages in the source man hierarchy may be expired if they
are not accessed for a period of time.

If preformatted manual pages come with a system on read-only media (a CD-ROM,
for instance), they must be installed in the source man hierarchy (e.g. /usr/
share/man/cat
). /var/cache/man is reserved as a writable cache for
formatted manual pages.

Rationale: Release 1.2 of the standard specified /var/catman for this
hierarchy. The path has been moved under /var/cache to better reflect the
dynamic nature of the formatted man pages. The directory name has been
changed to man to allow for enhancing the hierarchy to include
post-processed formats other than "cat", such as PostScript, HTML, or DVI.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/var/crash : System crash dumps (optional)

Purpose


This directory holds system crash dumps. As of the date of this release of the
standard, system crash dumps were not supported under Linux but may be
supported by other systems which may comply with the FHS.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/var/games : Variable game data (optional)

Purpose


Any variable data relating to games in /usr should be placed here. /var/games
should hold the variable data previously found in /usr; static data, such as
help text, level descriptions, and so on, must remain elsewhere, such as /usr/
share/games.

Rationale: /var/games has been given a hierarchy of its own, rather than
leaving it merged in with the old /var/lib as in release 1.2. The
separation allows local control of backup strategies, permissions, and disk
usage, as well as allowing inter-host sharing and reducing clutter in /var/
lib. Additionally, /var/games is the path traditionally used by BSD.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/var/lib : Variable state information


Purpose


This hierarchy holds state information pertaining to an application or the
system. State information is data that programs modify while they run, and that
pertains to one specific host. Users must never need to modify files in /var/
lib to configure a package's operation.

State information is generally used to preserve the condition of an application
(or a group of inter-related applications) between invocations and between
different instances of the same application. State information should generally
remain valid after a reboot, should not be logging output, and should not be
spooled data.

An application (or a group of inter-related applications) must use a
subdirectory of /var/lib for its data. There is one required subdirectory, /var
/lib/misc, which is intended for state files that don't need a subdirectory;
the other subdirectories should only be present if the application in question
is included in the distribution. [38]

/var/lib/ is the location that must be used for all distribution
packaging support. Different distributions may use different names, of course.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Requirements


The following directories, or symbolic links to directories, are required in /
var/lib:

Directory Description
misc Miscellaneous state data

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Specific Options


The following directories, or symbolic links to directories, must be in /var/
lib, if the corresponding subsystem is installed:

Directory Description
Editor backup files and state (optional)
Packaging support files (optional)
State data for packages and subsystems (optional)
hwclock State directory for hwclock (optional)
xdm X display manager variable data (optional)

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/var/lib/ : Editor backup files and state (optional)

Purpose


These directories contain saved files generated by any unexpected termination
of an editor (e.g., elvis, jove, nvi).

Other editors may not require a directory for crash-recovery files, but may
require a well-defined place to store other information while the editor is
running. This information should be stored in a subdirectory under /var/lib
(for example, GNU Emacs would place lock files in /var/lib/emacs/lock).

Future editors may require additional state information beyond crash-recovery
files and lock files - this information should also be placed under /var/lib/
.

Rationale: Previous Linux releases, as well as all commercial vendors, use
/var/preserve for vi or its clones. However, each editor uses its own
format for these crash-recovery files, so a separate directory is needed
for each editor.

Editor-specific lock files are usually quite different from the device or
resource lock files that are stored in /var/lock and, hence, are stored
under /var/lib.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/var/lib/hwclock : State directory for hwclock (optional)

Purpose


This directory contains the file /var/lib/hwclock/adjtime.

Rationale: In FHS 2.1, this file was /etc/adjtime, but as hwclock updates
it, that was obviously incorrect.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/var/lib/misc : Miscellaneous variable data

Purpose


This directory contains variable data not placed in a subdirectory in /var/lib.
An attempt should be made to use relatively unique names in this directory to
avoid namespace conflicts. [39]

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/var/lock : Lock files


Purpose


Lock files should be stored within the /var/lock directory structure.

Lock files for devices and other resources shared by multiple applications,
such as the serial device lock files that were originally found in either /usr/
spool/locks or /usr/spool/uucp, must now be stored in /var/lock. The naming
convention which must be used is "LCK.." followed by the base name of the
device. For example, to lock /dev/ttyS0 the file "LCK..ttyS0" would be created.
[40]

The format used for the contents of such lock files must be the HDB UUCP lock
file format. The HDB format is to store the process identifier (PID) as a ten
byte ASCII decimal number, with a trailing newline. For example, if process
1230 holds a lock file, it would contain the eleven characters: space, space,
space, space, space, space, one, two, three, zero, and newline.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/var/log : Log files and directories


Purpose


This directory contains miscellaneous log files. Most logs must be written to
this directory or an appropriate subdirectory.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Specific Options


The following files, or symbolic links to files, must be in /var/log, if the
corresponding subsystem is installed:

File Description
lastlog record of last login of each user
messages system messages from syslogd
wtmp record of all logins and logouts

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/var/mail : User mailbox files (optional)

Purpose


The mail spool must be accessible through /var/mail and the mail spool files
must take the form . [41]

User mailbox files in this location must be stored in the standard UNIX mailbox
format.

Rationale: The logical location for this directory was changed from /var/
spool/mail in order to bring FHS in-line with nearly every UNIX
implementation. This change is important for inter-operability since a
single /var/mail is often shared between multiple hosts and multiple UNIX
implementations (despite NFS locking issues).

It is important to note that there is no requirement to physically move the
mail spool to this location. However, programs and header files must be
changed to use /var/mail.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/var/opt : Variable data for /opt


Purpose


Variable data of the packages in /opt must be installed in /var/opt/,
where is the name of the subtree in /opt where the static data from an
add-on software package is stored, except where superseded by another file in /
etc. No structure is imposed on the internal arrangement of /var/opt/.

Rationale: Refer to the rationale for /opt.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/var/run : Run-time variable data

Purpose


This directory contains system information data describing the system since it
was booted. Files under this directory must be cleared (removed or truncated as
appropriate) at the beginning of the boot process. Programs may have a
subdirectory of /var/run; this is encouraged for programs that use more than
one run-time file. [42] Process identifier (PID) files, which were originally
placed in /etc, must be placed in /var/run. The naming convention for PID files
is .pid. For example, the crond PID file is named /var/run/
crond.pid.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Requirements


The internal format of PID files remains unchanged. The file must consist of
the process identifier in ASCII-encoded decimal, followed by a newline
character. For example, if crond was process number 25, /var/run/crond.pid
would contain three characters: two, five, and newline.

Programs that read PID files should be somewhat flexible in what they accept;
i.e., they should ignore extra whitespace, leading zeroes, absence of the
trailing newline, or additional lines in the PID file. Programs that create PID
files should use the simple specification located in the above paragraph.

The utmp file, which stores information about who is currently using the
system, is located in this directory.

System programs that maintain transient UNIX-domain sockets must place them in
this directory.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/var/spool : Application spool data


Purpose


/var/spool contains data which is awaiting some kind of later processing. Data
in /var/spool represents work to be done in the future (by a program, user, or
administrator); often data is deleted after it has been processed. [43]

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Specific Options


The following directories, or symbolic links to directories, must be in /var/
spool, if the corresponding subsystem is installed:

Directory Description
lpd Printer spool directory (optional)
mqueue Outgoing mail queue (optional)
news News spool directory (optional)
rwho Rwhod files (optional)
uucp Spool directory for UUCP (optional)

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/var/spool/lpd : Line-printer daemon print queues (optional)

Purpose


The lock file for lpd, lpd.lock, must be placed in /var/spool/lpd. It is
suggested that the lock file for each printer be placed in the spool directory
for that specific printer and named lock.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Specific Options


Directory Description
printer Spools for a specific printer (optional)

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/var/spool/rwho : Rwhod files (optional)


Purpose


This directory holds the rwhod information for other systems on the local net.

Rationale: Some BSD releases use /var/rwho for this data; given its
historical location in /var/spool on other systems and its approximate fit
to the definition of `spooled' data, this location was deemed more
appropriate.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/var/tmp : Temporary files preserved between system reboots

Purpose


The /var/tmp directory is made available for programs that require temporary
files or directories that are preserved between system reboots. Therefore, data
stored in /var/tmp is more persistent than data in /tmp.

Files and directories located in /var/tmp must not be deleted when the system
is booted. Although data stored in /var/tmp is typically deleted in a
site-specific manner, it is recommended that deletions occur at a less frequent
interval than /tmp.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/var/yp : Network Information Service (NIS) database files (optional)

Purpose


Variable data for the Network Information Service (NIS), formerly known as the
Sun Yellow Pages (YP), must be placed in this directory.

Rationale: /var/yp is the standard directory for NIS (YP) data and is
almost exclusively used in NIS documentation and systems. [44]

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter 6. Operating System Specific Annex

This section is for additional requirements and recommendations that only apply
to a specific operating system. The material in this section should never
conflict with the base standard.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Linux


This is the annex for the Linux operating system.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/ : Root directory


On Linux systems, if the kernel is located in /, we recommend using the names
vmlinux or vmlinuz, which have been used in recent Linux kernel source
packages.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/bin : Essential user command binaries (for use by all users)

Linux systems which require them place these additional files into /bin:

* setserial


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/dev : Devices and special files


The following devices must exist under /dev.

/dev/null


All data written to this device is discarded. A read from this device will
return an EOF condition.

/dev/zero


This device is a source of zeroed out data. All data written to this device
is discarded. A read from this device will return as many bytes containing
the value zero as was requested.

/dev/tty


This device is a synonym for the controlling terminal of a process. Once
this device is opened, all reads and writes will behave as if the actual
controlling terminal device had been opened.

Rationale: Previous versions of the FHS had stricter requirements for /dev.
Other devices may also exist in /dev. Device names may exist as symbolic
links to other device nodes located in /dev or subdirectories of /dev.
There is no requirement concerning major/minor number values.



-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/etc : Host-specific system configuration

Linux systems which require them place these additional files into /etc.

* lilo.conf


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/lib64 and /lib32 : 64/32-bit libraries (architecture dependent)

The 64-bit architectures PPC64, s390x, sparc64 and AMD64 must place 64-bit
libraries in /lib64, and 32-bit (or 31-bit on s390) libraries in /lib.

The 64-bit architecture IA64 must place 64-bit libraries in /lib.


Rationale: This is a refinement of the general rules for /lib and /
usr/lib. The architectures PPC64, s390x, sparc64 and AMD64 support
support both 32-bit (for s390 more precise 31-bit) and 64-bit programs.
Using lib for 32-bit binaries allows existing binaries from the 32-bit
systems to work without any changes: such binaries are expected to be
numerous. IA-64 uses a different scheme, reflecting the deprecation of
32-bit binaries (and hence libraries) on that architecture.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/proc : Kernel and process information virtual filesystem

The proc filesystem is the de-facto standard Linux method for handling process
and system information, rather than /dev/kmem and other similar methods. We
strongly encourage this for the storage and retrieval of process information as
well as other kernel and memory information.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/sbin : Essential system binaries


Linux systems place these additional files into /sbin.

* Second extended filesystem commands (optional):

+ badblocks


+ dumpe2fs


+ e2fsck


+ mke2fs


+ mklost+found


+ tune2fs


* Boot-loader map installer (optional):

+ lilo


Optional files for /sbin:


* Static binaries:


+ ldconfig


+ sln


+ ssync


Static ln (sln) and static sync (ssync) are useful when things go wrong.
The primary use of sln (to repair incorrect symlinks in /lib after a poorly
orchestrated upgrade) is no longer a major concern now that the ldconfig
program (usually located in /usr/sbin) exists and can act as a guiding hand
in upgrading the dynamic libraries. Static sync is useful in some emergency
situations. Note that these need not be statically linked versions of the
standard ln and sync, but may be.

The ldconfig binary is optional for /sbin since a site may choose to run
ldconfig at boot time, rather than only when upgrading the shared
libraries. (It's not clear whether or not it is advantageous to run
ldconfig on each boot.) Even so, some people like ldconfig around for the
following (all too common) situation:

1. I've just removed /lib/.


2. I can't find out the name of the library because ls is dynamically
linked, I'm using a shell that doesn't have ls built-in, and I don't
know about using "echo *" as a replacement.

3. I have a static sln, but I don't know what to call the link.

* Miscellaneous:


+ ctrlaltdel


+ kbdrate


So as to cope with the fact that some keyboards come up with such a high
repeat rate as to be unusable, kbdrate may be installed in /sbin on some
systems.

Since the default action in the kernel for the Ctrl-Alt-Del key combination
is an instant hard reboot, it is generally advisable to disable the
behavior before mounting the root filesystem in read-write mode. Some init
suites are able to disable Ctrl-Alt-Del, but others may require the
ctrlaltdel program, which may be installed in /sbin on those systems.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/usr/include : Header files included by C programs

These symbolic links are required if a C or C++ compiler is installed and only
for systems not based on glibc.

/usr/include/asm -> /usr/src/linux/include/asm-
/usr/include/linux -> /usr/src/linux/include/linux

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/usr/src : Source code


For systems based on glibc, there are no specific guidelines for this
directory. For systems based on Linux libc revisions prior to glibc, the
following guidelines and rationale apply:

The only source code that should be placed in a specific location is the Linux
kernel source code. It is located in /usr/src/linux.

If a C or C++ compiler is installed, but the complete Linux kernel source code
is not installed, then the include files from the kernel source code must be
located in these directories:

/usr/src/linux/include/asm-
/usr/src/linux/include/linux

is the name of the system architecture.

Note: /usr/src/linux may be a symbolic link to a kernel source code tree.

Rationale: It is important that the kernel include files be located in /usr
/src/linux and not in /usr/include so there are no problems when system
administrators upgrade their kernel version for the first time.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/var/spool/cron : cron and at jobs


This directory contains the variable data for the cron and at programs.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter 7. Appendix


The FHS mailing list


The FHS mailing list is located at
. You can subscribe to the
mailing list at this page http://sourceforge.net/projects/freestandards/.

Thanks to Network Operations at the University of California at San Diego who
allowed us to use their excellent mailing list server.

As noted in the introduction, please do not send mail to the mailing list
without first contacting the FHS editor or a listed contributor.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Background of the FHS


The process of developing a standard filesystem hierarchy began in August 1993
with an effort to restructure the file and directory structure of Linux. The
FSSTND, a filesystem hierarchy standard specific to the Linux operating system,
was released on February 14, 1994. Subsequent revisions were released on
October 9, 1994 and March 28, 1995.

In early 1995, the goal of developing a more comprehensive version of FSSTND to
address not only Linux, but other UNIX-like systems was adopted with the help
of members of the BSD development community. As a result, a concerted effort
was made to focus on issues that were general to UNIX-like systems. In
recognition of this widening of scope, the name of the standard was changed to
Filesystem Hierarchy Standard or FHS for short.

Volunteers who have contributed extensively to this standard are listed at the
end of this document. This standard represents a consensus view of those and
other contributors.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

General Guidelines


Here are some of the guidelines that have been used in the development of this
standard:

* Solve technical problems while limiting transitional difficulties.

* Make the specification reasonably stable.

* Gain the approval of distributors, developers, and other decision-makers in
relevant development groups and encourage their participation.

* Provide a standard that is attractive to the implementors of different
UNIX-like systems.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Scope


This document specifies a standard filesystem hierarchy for FHS filesystems by
specifying the location of files and directories, and the contents of some
system files.

This standard has been designed to be used by system integrators, package
developers, and system administrators in the construction and maintenance of
FHS compliant filesystems. It is primarily intended to be a reference and is
not a tutorial on how to manage a conforming filesystem hierarchy.

The FHS grew out of earlier work on FSSTND, a filesystem organization standard
for the Linux operating system. It builds on FSSTND to address interoperability
issues not just in the Linux community but in a wider arena including
4.4BSD-based operating systems. It incorporates lessons learned in the BSD
world and elsewhere about multi-architecture support and the demands of
heterogeneous networking.

Although this standard is more comprehensive than previous attempts at
filesystem hierarchy standardization, periodic updates may become necessary as
requirements change in relation to emerging technology. It is also possible
that better solutions to the problems addressed here will be discovered so that
our solutions will no longer be the best possible solutions. Supplementary
drafts may be released in addition to periodic updates to this document.
However, a specific goal is backwards compatibility from one release of this
document to the next.

Comments related to this standard are welcome. Any comments or suggestions for
changes may be directed to the FHS editor (Daniel Quinlan
) or the FHS mailing list. Typographical or grammatical
comments should be directed to the FHS editor.

Before sending mail to the mailing list it is requested that you first contact
the FHS editor in order to avoid excessive re-discussion of old topics.

Questions about how to interpret items in this document may occasionally arise.
If you have need for a clarification, please contact the FHS editor. Since this
standard represents a consensus of many participants, it is important to make
certain that any interpretation also represents their collective opinion. For
this reason it may not be possible to provide an immediate response unless the
inquiry has been the subject of previous discussion.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Acknowledgments


The developers of the FHS wish to thank the developers, system administrators,
and users whose input was essential to this standard. We wish to thank each of
the contributors who helped to write, compile, and compose this standard.

The FHS Group also wishes to thank those Linux developers who supported the
FSSTND, the predecessor to this standard. If they hadn't demonstrated that the
FSSTND was beneficial, the FHS could never have evolved.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Contributors


Brandon S. Allbery
Keith Bostic
Drew Eckhardt
Rik Faith
Stephen Harris
Ian Jackson
Andreas Jaeger
John A. Martin
Ian McCloghrie
Chris Metcalf
Ian Murdock
David C. Niemi
Daniel Quinlan
Eric S. Raymond
Rusty Russell
Mike Sangrey
David H. Silber
Thomas Sippel-Dau
Theodore Ts'o
Stephen Tweedie
Fred N. van Kempen
Bernd Warken
Christopher Yeoh

Notes


[1] Command binaries that are not essential enough to place into /bin must be
placed in /usr/bin, instead. Items that are required only by non-root
users (the X Window System, chsh, etc.) are generally not essential enough
to be placed into the root partition.

[2] Programs necessary to arrange for the boot loader to be able to boot a
file must be placed in /sbin. Configuration files for boot loaders must be
placed in /etc.

The GRUB bootloader reads its configurations file before booting, so that
must be placed in /boot. However, it is a configuration file, so should be
in /etc. The answer here is a symbolic link such as /etc/grub/menu.lst ->
/boot/menu.lst.

[3] On some i386 machines, it may be necessary for /boot to be located on a
separate partition located completely below cylinder 1024 of the boot
device due to hardware constraints.

Certain MIPS systems require a /boot partition that is a mounted MS-DOS
filesystem or whatever other filesystem type is accessible for the
firmware. This may result in restrictions with respect to usable filenames
within /boot (only for affected systems).

[4] The setup of command scripts invoked at boot time may resemble System V,
BSD or other models. Further specification in this area may be added to a
future version of this standard.

[5] It is recommended that files be stored in subdirectories of /etc rather
than directly in /etc.

[6] Systems that use the shadow password suite will have additional
configuration files in /etc (/etc/shadow and others) and programs in /usr/
sbin (useradd, usermod, and others).

[7] On some Linux systems, this may be a symbolic link to /proc/mounts, in
which case this exception is not required.

[8] /etc/X11/xdm holds the configuration files for xdm. These are most of the
files previously found in /usr/lib/X11/xdm. Some local variable data for
xdm is stored in /var/lib/xdm.

[9] Different people prefer to place user accounts in a variety of places.
This section describes only a suggested placement for user home
directories; nevertheless we recommend that all FHS-compliant
distributions use this as the default location for home directories.

On small systems, each user's directory is typically one of the many
subdirectories of /home such as /home/smith, /home/torvalds, /home/
operator, etc. On large systems (especially when the /home directories are
shared amongst many hosts using NFS) it is useful to subdivide user home
directories. Subdivision may be accomplished by using subdirectories such
as /home/staff, /home/guests, /home/students, etc.

[10] If you want to find out a user's home directory, you should use the
getpwent(3) library function rather than relying on /etc/passwd because
user information may be stored remotely using systems such as NIS.

[11] It is recommended that apart from autosave and lock files programs should
refrain from creating non dot files or directories in a home directory
without user intervention.

[12] Shared libraries that are only necessary for binaries in /usr (such as any
X Window binaries) must not be in /lib. Only the shared libraries required
to run binaries in /bin and /sbin may be here. In particular, the library
libm.so.* may also be placed in /usr/lib if it is not required by anything
in /bin or /sbin.

[13] The usual placement of this binary is /usr/bin/cpp.

[14] This is commonly used for 64-bit or 32-bit support on systems which
support multiple binary formats, but require libraries of the same name.
In this case, /lib32 and /lib64 might be the library directories, and /lib
a symlink to one of them.

[15] /lib/cpp is still permitted: this allows the case where /lib and /
lib are the same (one is a symbolic link to the other).

[16] A compliant implementation with two CDROM drives might have /media/cdrom0
and /media/cdrom1 with /media/cdrom a symlink to either of these.

[17] If the home directory of the root account is not stored on the root
partition it will be necessary to make certain it will default to / if it
can not be located.

We recommend against using the root account for tasks that can be
performed as an unprivileged user, and that it be used solely for system
administration. For this reason, we recommend that subdirectories for mail
and other applications not appear in the root account's home directory,
and that mail for administration roles such as root, postmaster, and
webmaster be forwarded to an appropriate user.

[18] Originally, /sbin binaries were kept in /etc.

[19] Deciding what things go into "sbin" directories is simple: if a normal
(not a system administrator) user will ever run it directly, then it must
be placed in one of the "bin" directories. Ordinary users should not have
to place any of the sbin directories in their path.

For example, files such as chfn which users only occasionally use must
still be placed in /usr/bin. ping, although it is absolutely necessary for
root (network recovery and diagnosis) is often used by users and must live
in /bin for that reason.

We recommend that users have read and execute permission for everything in
/sbin except, perhaps, certain setuid and setgid programs. The division
between /bin and /sbin was not created for security reasons or to prevent
users from seeing the operating system, but to provide a good partition
between binaries that everyone uses and ones that are primarily used for
administration tasks. There is no inherent security advantage in making /
sbin off-limits for users.

[20] This is particularly important as these areas will often contain both
files initially installed by the distributor, and those added by the
administrator.

[21] Examples of such configuration files include Xconfig, XF86Config, or
system.twmrc)

[22] Miscellaneous architecture-independent application-specific static files
and subdirectories must be placed in /usr/share.

[23] For example, the perl5 subdirectory for Perl 5 modules and libraries.

[24] Some executable commands such as makewhatis and sendmail have also been
traditionally placed in /usr/lib. makewhatis is an internal binary and
must be placed in a binary directory; users access only catman. Newer
sendmail binaries are now placed by default in /usr/sbin. Additionally,
systems using a sendmail-compatible mail transfer agent must provide /usr/
sbin/sendmail as a symbolic link to the appropriate executable.

[25] Host-specific data for the X Window System must not be stored in /usr/lib/
X11. Host-specific configuration files such as Xconfig or XF86Config must
be stored in /etc/X11. This includes configuration data such as
system.twmrc even if it is only made a symbolic link to a more global
configuration file (probably in /usr/X11R6/lib/X11).

[26] The case where /usr/lib and /usr/lib are the same (one is a symbolic
link to the other) these files and the per-application subdirectories will
exist.

[27] Software placed in / or /usr may be overwritten by system upgrades (though
we recommend that distributions do not overwrite data in /etc under these
circumstances). For this reason, local software must not be placed outside
of /usr/local without good reason.

[28] /usr/local/man may be deprecated in future FHS releases, so if all else is
equal, making that one a symlink seems sensible.

[29] Locally installed system administration programs should be placed in /usr/
local/sbin.

[30] Much of this data originally lived in /usr (man, doc) or /usr/lib (dict,
terminfo, zoneinfo).

[31] Obviously, there are no manual pages in / because they are not required at
boot time nor are they required in emergencies. Really.

[32] For example, if /usr/local/man has no manual pages in section 4 (Devices),
then /usr/local/man/man4 may be omitted.

[33] A major exception to this rule is the United Kingdom, which is `GB' in the
ISO 3166, but `UK' for most email addresses.

[34] Some such files include: airport, birthtoken, eqnchar, getopt,
gprof.callg, gprof.flat, inter.phone, ipfw.samp.filters,
ipfw.samp.scripts, keycap.pcvt, mail.help, mail.tildehelp, man.template,
map3270, mdoc.template, more.help, na.phone, nslookup.help, operator,
scsi_modes, sendmail.hf, style, units.lib, vgrindefs, vgrindefs.db,
zipcodes

[35] Generally, source should not be built within this hierarchy.

[36] This standard does not currently incorporate the TeX Directory Structure
(a document that describes the layout TeX files and directories), but it
may be useful reading. It is located at ftp://ctan.tug.org/tex/

[37] For example, /usr/share/man/man1/ls.1 is formatted into /var/cache/man/
cat1/ls.1, and /usr/X11R6/man//man3/XtClass.3x into /var/cache/man
/X11R6//cat3/XtClass.3x.

[38] An important difference between this version of this standard and previous
ones is that applications are now required to use a subdirectory of /var/
lib.

[39] This hierarchy should contain files stored in /var/db in current BSD
releases. These include locate.database and mountdtab, and the kernel
symbol database(s).

[40] Then, anything wishing to use /dev/ttyS0 can read the lock file and act
accordingly (all locks in /var/lock should be world-readable).

[41] Note that /var/mail may be a symbolic link to another directory.

[42] /var/run should be unwritable for unprivileged users (root or users
running daemons); it is a major security problem if any user can write in
this directory.

[43] UUCP lock files must be placed in /var/lock. See the above section on /var
/lock.

[44] NIS should not be confused with Sun NIS+, which uses a different
directory, /var/nis.